In 1856, some people known as Freethinkers or ganized the society De Dageraad (Daybreak), in 1957 renamed De Vrije Gedachte (Free Thought). Liberal and socialist writers, historians, and politicians, such as Johannes van Vloten (1818–1883), Multatuli, and Ferdinand Domela Nieuwenhuis were most influ ential during the initial period. The association became a melting pot of liberal, socialist, and humanist thinkers, and atheists who propa gated materialism and atheism. Free thought never became a popular movement in the Netherlands.

Historical Dictionary of the Netherlands. . 2012.

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